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What is Motivated Reasoning?
How Does It Work? Dollard Professor at Yale Law School. I will offer a few points to help people assess such claims. To begin, motivated cognition refers to the unconscious tendency of individuals to fit their processing of information to conclusions that suit some end or goal.
Consider a classic example. In the s, psychologists asked experimental subjects, students from two Ivy League colleges, to watch a film that featured a set of controversial officiating calls made during a football game between teams from their respective schools.
They had no idea or so we are to believe; one needs a good experimental design to be sure this is so that their perceptions were being bent in this way. Examples of the goals or needs that can motivate cognition are diverse.
But they reach more intangible stakes, too, such as the need to sustain a positive self-image or protect connections to others with whom someone is intimately connected and on whom someone might well depend for support, emotional or material.
The mechanisms are also diverse. To be sure, motivated cognition can make us stupid, but it is not a consequence of stupidity. Social psychologists and behavioral economists distinguish between two forms of reasoning: And humbling unless as a result of motivated reasoning we see evidence of its operation only in those who disagree with us—in which case, motivated reasoning makes us anything but humble.
Work on motivated cognition and political conflict tends to focus more on the need for maintaining a valued identity, particularly as a member of a group.
It is certainly plausible that an individual would employ one or another of the mechanisms for motivated cognition to advance her economic interests. Dan Kahan is the Elizabeth K.READING AND WRITING TOGETHER. Writing is not a skill that students learn separate from other processes.
It combines many complex activities, including categorizing, building key terms and concepts for a subject, measuring one's reaction to a subject, making new connections, abstracting, figuring out significance, and developing arguments—to name a few. Writing Across the Curriculum.
The best way to teach is the way that makes sense to you, your kids, and your community. pared for the writing work you’ll be asking them to do. But yes, you will have writing work for them to do. No one is asking you to teach writing per se, but you are being asked to include writing as an.
The Purdue University Online Writing Lab serves writers from around the world and the Purdue University Writing Lab helps writers on Purdue's campus. Carol Rutz interviews Rita Malenczyk, Director of the University Writing Program at Eastern Connecticut State University, about her experience as a writing program administrator (WPA), work on writing across the curriculum (WAC), and other memorable events in her career.
An Introduction to Writing Across the Curriculum This guide offers information about WAC—writing across the curriculum. To learn more about WAC, choose any of .
The Career s economic development. Each program is aligned to a career cluster and is detailed in curriculum frameworks. With partners from education, busines.