The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts.
History of science Science in a broad sense existed before the modern era and in many historical civilizations. In particular, it was the type of knowledge which people can communicate to each other and share.
For example, knowledge about the working of natural things was gathered long before recorded history and led to the development of complex abstract thought. This is shown by the construction of complex calendars, techniques for making poisonous plants edible, public works at national scale, such as those which harnessed the floodplain of the Yangtse with reservoirs,  dams, and dikes, and buildings such as the Pyramids.
However, no consistent conscious distinction was made between knowledge of such things, which are true in every community, and other types of communal knowledge, such as mythologies and legal systems. It is thought that early experimentation with heating and mixing of substances over time developed into alchemy.
Early cultures Main article: History of science in early cultures Clay models of animal livers dating between the nineteenth and eighteenth centuries BCE, found in the royal palace in Mari, Syria Neither the words nor the concepts "science" and "nature" were part of the conceptual landscape in the ancient near east.
Nature philosophy In the classical world, there is no real ancient analog of a modern scientist. Instead, well-educated, usually upper-class, and almost universally male individuals performed various investigations into nature whenever they could afford the time.
For this reason, it is claimed these men were the first philosophers in the strict sense, and also the first people to clearly distinguish "nature" and "convention. They were mainly speculators or theoristsparticularly interested in astronomy. This was a reaction to the Sophist emphasis on rhetoric.
The Socratic method searches for general, commonly held truths that shape beliefs and scrutinizes them to determine their consistency with other beliefs. Socrates was later, in the words of his Apology, accused of corrupting the youth of Athens because he did "not believe in the gods the state believes in, but in other new spiritual beings".
Socrates refuted these claims,  but was sentenced to death. Motion and change is described as the actualization of potentials already in things, according to what types of things they are.
In his physics, the Sun goes around the Earth, and many things have it as part of their nature that they are for humans. Each thing has a formal causea final causeand a role in a cosmic order with an unmoved mover. The Socratics also insisted that philosophy should be used to consider the practical question of the best way to live for a human being a study Aristotle divided into ethics and political philosophy.
Aristotle maintained that man knows a thing scientifically "when he possesses a conviction arrived at in a certain way, and when the first principles on which that conviction rests are known to him with certainty".
During late antiquity, in the Byzantine empire many Greek classical texts were preserved. Many Syriac translations were done by groups such as the Nestorians and Monophysites.
Medieval science postulated a ventricle of the brain as the location for our common sense: Science in the medieval Islamic world Because of the collapse of the Western Roman Empire due to the Migration Period an intellectual decline took place in the western part of Europe in the s.
In contrast, the Byzantine Empire resisted the attacks from the barbarians, and preserved and improved upon the learning. However, the general fields of science or " natural philosophy " as it was called and much of the general knowledge from the ancient world remained preserved through the works of the early Latin encyclopedists like Isidore of Seville.
In the Byzantine empiremany Greek classical texts were preserved. Al-Kindi — was the first of the Muslim Peripatetic philosophers, and is known for his efforts to introduce Greek and Hellenistic philosophy to the Arab world.
In addition, classical Greek texts started to be translated from Arabic and Greek into Latin, giving a higher level of scientific discussion in Western Europe. Demand for Latin translations grew for example, from the Toledo School of Translators ; western Europeans began collecting texts written not only in Latin, but also Latin translations from Greek, Arabic, and Hebrew.The opening sentence of Watson and Crick's classic article is simple, direct, and clear.
But suppose the authors had taken the passive point of view: In this paper, a structure is suggested for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid (D.N.A.). The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued .
A comprehensive, coeducational Catholic High school Diocese of Wollongong - Albion Park Act Justly, love tenderly and walk humbly with your God Micah "Women empowerment" and "women equality with men" is a universal issue.
Women Empowerment refers to increasing and improving the social, economic, political and legal strength of the women, to ensure equal-right to women, and to make them confident enough to claim their rights, such as. Paul Andersen explains the importance of biodiversity.
He starts by describing how biodiversity can be species, genetic or ecosystem diversity. Abstract. The advent of agriculture has ushered in an unprecedented increase in the human population and their domesticated animals.
Farming catalyzed our transformation from primitive hunter-gatherers to sophisticated urban dwellers in just 10, years.