The main area I will cover is What the affects of the Black Plague was and how is spread.
ShareCompartir A person wearing a hat, a mask suggestive of a bird beak, goggles or glasses, and a long gown. The clothing identifies the person as a "plague doctor" and is intended as protection. Descriptions indicate that the gown was made from heavy fabric or leather and was usually waxed.
The beak contained pungent substances like herbs or perfumes, thought at the time to purify the air and helpful in relieving the stench. The person also carries a pointer or rod to keep patients at a distance.
Library of Medicine Plague has a remarkable place in history and has had enormous effects on the development of modern civilization. Some scholars have even suggested that the collapse of the Roman Empire may be linked to the spread of plague by Roman soldiers returning home from battle in the Persian Gulf in AD.
For centuries, plague represented disaster for people living in Asia, Africa and Europe and because the cause of plague was unknown, plague outbreaks contributed to massive panic in cities and countries where it appeared. Numerous references in art, literature and monuments attest to the horrors and devastation of past plague epidemics.
We now know that plague is caused by a bacterium called Yersinia pestis that often infects small rodents like rats, mice, and squirrels and is usually transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected flea. In the past, black rats were the most commonly infected animals and hungry rat fleas would jump from their recently-dead rat hosts to humans, looking for a blood meal.
The Justinian Plague began in AD and was followed by frequent outbreaks over the next two hundred years that eventually killed over 25 million people Rosen, and affected much of the Mediterranean basin—virtually all of the known world at that time. Entire towns were wiped out. Some contemporary historians report that on occasion, there were not enough survivors remaining to bury the dead Gross, Despite the vast devastation caused by this pandemic, however, massive labor shortages due to high mortality rates sped up the development of many economic, social, and technical modernizations Benedictow, It has even been considered a factor in the emergence of the Renaissance in the late 14th century.
Over the next 20 years, it spread to port cities around the world by rats on steamships. The pandemic caused approximately 10 million deaths Khan, During this last pandemic, scientists identified the causative agent as a bacterium and determined that plague is spread by infectious flea bites.
Rat-associated plague was soon brought under control in most urban areas, but the infection easily spread to local populations of ground squirrels and other small mammals in the Americas, Africa, and Asia.
These new species of carriers have allowed plague to become endemic in many rural areas, including the western U. However, as a bacterial disease, plague can be treated with antibiotics, and can be prevented from spreading by prompt identification, treatment and management of human cases.
Applications of effective insecticides to control the flea vectors also provide assistance in controlling plague. Plague lab, San Francisco. Library of Medicine Recent Outbreaks The most recent plague epidemics have been reported in India during the first half of the 20th century, and in Vietnam during wartime in the s and s.
Plague as a Weapon of War As a highly contagious disease with an extremely high mortality rate if left untreated, Yersinia pestis has been used as a weapon of biological warfare for centuries.
Some warfare strategies have included catapulting corpses over city walls, dropping infected fleas from airplanes, and aerosolizing the bacteria during the Cold War Stenseth, More recently, plague raised concern as an important national security threat because of its potential for use by terrorists.Black Death: Black Death, pandemic that ravaged Europe between and , taking a proportionately greater toll of life than any other known epidemic or war up to that time.
The Black Death is widely thought to have been the result of plague, caused by infection with the bacterium Yersinia pestis. The Black Death, or The Black Plague, was one of the most deadly pandemics in human history.
It began in South-western or Central Asia and spread to Europe by the late s. The total number of deaths worldwide from the pandemic is estimated at 75 million people; there were an estimated 20 million deaths in Europe alone. The Black Death, a widespread bubonic plague infection, peaked in Europe between and It was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, leaving an estimated 75 - million.
Watch video · The Black Death was a devastating global epidemic of bubonic plague that struck Europe and Asia in the mids. Estimates vary, but the Black Death may have killed one-half of Europe’s. The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 75 to million people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from to The Black Death was one of the most severe plagues in its time.
I am going to talk about the Black Death, which is also known as The Black Plague and The Bubonic Plague. The main area I will cover is What the affects of the Black Plague was and how is spread.