The causes and etiology of oppositional defiant disorder

ODD most commonly affects children and adolescents.

The causes and etiology of oppositional defiant disorder

Can Conduct Disorder Be Prevented? Conduct disorder is a serious behavioral and emotional disorder that can occur in children and teens.

Learning Objectives

A child with this disorder may display a pattern of disruptive and violent behavior and have problems following rules. It is not uncommon for children and teens to have behavior-related problems at some time during their development.

What Are the Symptoms of Conduct Disorder? Symptoms of conduct disorder vary depending on the age of the child and whether the disorder is mild, moderate, or severe.

In general, symptoms of conduct disorder fall into four general categories: These are behaviors that threaten or cause physical harm and may include fighting, bullyingbeing cruel to others or animals, using weapons, and forcing another into sexual activity.

The causes and etiology of oppositional defiant disorder

This may include repeated lying, shoplifting, or breaking into homes or cars in order to steal. These behaviors may include running away, skipping school, playing pranks, or being sexually active at a very young age.

In addition, many children with conduct disorder are irritable, have low self-esteem, and tend to throw frequent temper tantrums. Some may abuse drugs and alcohol.


Children with conduct disorder often are unable to appreciate how their behavior can hurt others and generally have little guilt or remorse about hurting others. Continued What Causes Conduct Disorder? The exact cause of conduct disorder is not known, but it is believed that a combination of biological, genetic, environmental, psychological, and social factors play a role.

Some studies suggest that defects or injuries to certain areas of the brain can lead to behavior disorders. Conduct disorder has been linked to particular brain regions involved in regulating behavior, impulse control, and emotion.

Conduct disorder symptoms may occur if nerve cell circuits along these brain regions do not work properly. Many children and teens with conduct disorder have close family members with mental illnesses, including mood disordersanxiety disorderssubstance use disorders and personality disorders.

The causes and etiology of oppositional defiant disorder

This suggests that a vulnerability to conduct disorder may be at least partially inherited. Factors such as a dysfunctional family life, childhood abuse, traumatic experiences, a family history of substance abuse, and inconsistent discipline by parents may contribute to the development of conduct disorder.

Some experts believe that conduct disorders can reflect problems with moral awareness notably, lack of guilt and remorse and deficits in cognitive processing.

Low socioeconomic status and not being accepted by their peers appear to be risk factors for the development of conduct disorder.INTRODUCTION — Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a disorder that manifests in childhood with symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention.

The symptoms affect cognitive, academic, behavioral, emotional, and social functioning [1]. (See 'Diagnostic criteria' below. Nail biting, also known as onychophagy or onychophagia (or even erroneously onchophagia), is an oral compulsive is sometimes described as a parafunctional activity, the common use of the mouth for an activity other than speaking, eating, or drinking..

Nail biting is very common, especially amongst children. Less innocent forms of nails biting are considered an impulse control disorder. Learning Objectives. This is an intermediate level course. After taking this course, mental health professionals will be able to: List and discuss four medical causes of mental disorders.

ICD Version Chapters. Certain infectious and parasitic diseases Neoplasms Diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs and certain disorders involving the immune mechanism.

Sep 22,  · Traumatic experiences, especially repeated ones, as occurs in child abuse, greatly increases the risk for the development of borderline personality disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and depression in adult years.

Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is listed in the DSM-5 under Disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders and defined as "a pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness" in children and adolescents. Unlike children with conduct disorder (CD), children with oppositional defiant disorder are not aggressive towards people or animals, do not destroy.

Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) in Children | Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library