Hire Writer His father was also a disciple of the enlightenment and liked to read many philosophical texts and literature, often explaining to Marx what he was reading and having small debates with him over a point in question. As well as his father, his neighbour, a Freiherr Ludwig von Westphalen had an influence on young Marx and was a family friend. Westphalen was extremely well educated and liked to lend Marx books, especially foreign books about anything that he thought would help. Mostly, they read and talked about philosophy and literature, but also liked to debate in length social doctrines and problems with society.
Innovative thinking about a global world Friday, July 22, Marx's critique Marx was a critic above all else. His most comfortable intellectual stance was criticism -- most of the subtitles of his works involve the word "critique". He was, of course, a critic of other thinkers --Proudhon, Smith, Bakunin, for example.
And here, the key to criticism is the unearthing of indefensible intellectual presuppositions. But even more importantly, he was a critic of the society he observed around him.
The key here is to uncover systemic features of a given society that are fundamentally inconsistent with important human values.
His earliest social criticism took its aim at the German society he inhabited in the s and s. But it is his critique of modern capitalist society that is the most enduring, and this critique took shape through his observations of the society and economy of Great Britain in the s and s.
I think that Marx's critique of 19th-century capitalist society can be summarized in three words: These are simple ideas, but they invoke large and somewhat separate theories.
The first has to do with economic relations in capitalism, in which one group extracts wealth from the work of another group. The second has to do with political relations in which one group has the power to compel subordination on the part of another group.
And the third has to do with consciousness and the social psychology of the members of capitalist society. You might say that it is the work of Capital: A Critique of Political Economy, Vol. Capitalism depends on free labor and freedom of property; it depends on a system of free exchange; so how can exploitation take place?
The exploitation inherent in slavery or feudalism is apparent in the formal legal and political relations of those regimes: But how does this work in the system of free exchange in capitalism? Marx's answer, briefly, is that the privilege of ownership of the means of production allows owners to set the wage at a level that permits the creation of a profit; this profit is a form of surplus value.
Marx's political writings, and his writings about power within capitalism, are less systematic. But in his writings about French politics and the revolution of he expresses some of his ideas about how domination works through a political system Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis BonaparteThe Civil War in France: And in Capital he offers a vivid description of the social power wielded by the capitalist link.
He, who before was the money-owner, now strides in front as capitalist; the possessor of labour-power follows as his labourer. The one with an air of importance, smirking, intent on business; the other, timid and holding back, like one who is bringing his own hide to market and has nothing to expect but — a hiding.
Marx's writings about alienation are among his earliest writings. The most systematic exposition occurs in The Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts ofwhere he describes the social consciousness associated with the "modern" factory system.
The worker is separated from the product; he is separated from the process; and he is separated from his own essence, his creative capacity for invention and creative labor.
Here are a few representative passages link. We proceed from an actual economic fact. The worker becomes all the poorer the more wealth he produces, the more his production increases in power and size.
The worker becomes an ever cheaper commodity the more commodities he creates. The devaluation of the world of men is in direct proportion to the increasing value of the world of things. Labor produces not only commodities; it produces itself and the worker as a commodity — and this at the same rate at which it produces commodities in general.
The product of labor is labor which has been embodied in an object, which has become material: Under these economic conditions this realization of labor appears as loss of realization for the workers; objectification as loss of the object and bondage to it; appropriation as estrangement, as alienation.
All these consequences are implied in the statement that the worker is related to the product of labor as to an alien object. For on this premise it is clear that the more the worker spends himself, the more powerful becomes the alien world of objects which he creates over and against himself, the poorer he himself — his inner world — becomes, the less belongs to him as his own.
It is the same in religion. The more man puts into God, the less he retains in himself. The worker puts his life into the object; but now his life no longer belongs to him but to the object.
Hence, the greater this activity, the more the worker lacks objects.
Whatever the product of his labor is, he is not.Karl Marx and Thorstein Veblen views on class creation, the effect of class struggle, and the effect of machines on the future of capitalism provide areas of identifiable comparison and contrast.
Class structure and struggles are an area of particular interest to Marx and Veblen. Karl Marx and Capitalism Essay - Karl Marx, in the Capital, developed his critique of capitalism by analyzing its characteristics and its development throughout history. The critique contains Marx’s most developed economic analysis and philosophical insight.
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